Migration and Development Brief
Migration and Development Brief 36
A War in a Pandemic. Implications of the Ukraine crisis and COVID-19 on global governance of migration and remittance flows (May 2022).
Report Chapters and Remittance Inflows and Outflows Data
- A Financial Lifeline for a Developing World at Risk
- Prior to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, remittances sustained strong momentum in 2021.
- Reasons for Sustained Growth in Remittances during 2021
- Top Remittance Source and Recipient Countries in 2021.
- The Outlook for 2022: Risks Escalate in the Wake of the Russian Invasion of Ukrain.
- Migration Trends
- Policy Issues
- Remittance Costs (SDG indicator 10.c.1)
- Improving Data on Remittance.
- Recruitment Costs (SDG indicator 10.7.1)
- Implications for Global Governance Architecture for Migration and Remittance Flows
- Global Governance of Migration
- The Twin Crises and the International Payment System
- Regional Trends in Migration and Remittance Flows
- Remittances to East Asia and the Pacific declined in 2021
- Remittances to Europe and Central Asia Were Stronger than Expected in 2021
- Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean Surged in 2021
- Remittances to the Middle East and North Africa Registered Strong Growth in 2021
- Remittances to South Asia Increased in 2021
- Remittances to Sub-Saharan Africa Recovered in 2021
Source: KNOMAD/World Bank staff; IMF Balance of Payments Statistics. See appendix in Migration and Development Brief 32 for forecasting methods (World Bank/KNOMAD 2020).
Note: e = estimate; f = forecast.